Publications

E.CA Economists publish regularly in academic journals, competition and regulation journals and the more popular business press. We speak frequently at conferences, workshops and symposiums.

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Papers & reports

When Do Markets Tip? An Overview and Some Insights for Policy

Özlem Bedre-DefolieRainer NitscheJournal of European Competition Law & Practice, February 2021

Find out in the latest research by Özlem Bedre Defolie, associate professor at ESMT Berlin, and Rainer Nitsche, director at E.CA Economics and research fellow at ESMT Berlin, published by the Journal of European Competition Law and Practice.

Competition authorities are increasingly concerned that their tools are not fit to deal with markets with digital multi-sided platforms (MSPs). These markets have a tendency to ‘tip’ in the sense that one MSP takes it all or dominates the market by far. Policy makers, including the EC, are currently considering various initiatives to prevent tipping in markets with MSPs. At least in Europe, general search markets have tipped for Google, and many social media markets have tipped for Facebook. Several regional platform markets, however, did not tip (e.g. real estate, music, video-on-demand streaming). This raises some interesting questions: Why don’t we have tipping in these markets? Might they tip? Should competition authorities and regulators follow a particular strategy to prevent tipping in markets at risk of tipping?

Link to pdf

Link to Website


Article

Analyse de la concurrence locale par l’Autorité belge de la Concurrence

Alexis WalckiersOlivier Body, Griet Jans, Jeroen Vander Cruyssen, Bert willekens, Revue de la Concurrence Belge, Vol. 2020-4, p.330, December 2020

Our director Alexis Walckiers has published an article on the analysis of local competition by the Belgian Competition Authority with his former colleagues Olivier Body, Griet Jans, Jeroen Vander Cruyssen, and Bert Willekens.
This article seeks to explain how local markets are defined by the Belgian Competition Authority, depending on the quality of available data.

Link to article


Article

GCR Insight – Enforcer Hub – Germany overview

Hans W. FriederiszickThomas HildebrandSimone KohnzRainer NitscheGCR Insight, Enforcer Hub, January 2021

Hans W. FriederiszickThomas Hildebrand, Simone KohnzRainer Nitsche, contributed to the GCR’s Enforcer Hub  – Germany overview
– which is now live on GCR Insight.

An extract from GCR’s Enforcer Hub is available here. The whole publication is available at https://globalcompetitionreview.com/insight/enforcer-hub/2020


Papers & reports

14th Edition of Focus on Competition

Gregor LangusBrecht BooneKaranovic & Partners,, December 2020

Our director Gregor Langus and manager Brecht Boone contributed to the 14th edition of FOCUS ON COMPETITION, published by Karanovic & Partners. It features insightful articles on various hot topics from some of the most prominent figures in the field of competition law.

Gregor and Brecht explain how irreversibility of investment combined with market power can result in a delay in investments in the current climate of high uncertainty due to Covid-19. Building on these insights, the authors discuss the implications for the design of state aid and other fiscal policies.

Link to publication


Papers & reports

Loyalty Penalty Report

Paul HeidhuesMichael RauberJohannes Johnen, Competition and Markets Authority (CMA), December 2020

Professors Paul Heidhues and Johannes Johnen with support of Dr Michael Rauber of E.CA Economics carried out a research report for the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA). Now the CMA has published the report that reviews the academic literature on the economic theory of the loyalty penalty. This includes both the classical theory such as switching and search costs, and behavioural theories explaining phenomena like consumer inertia.

The study aims to understand how pricing patterns can arise under differing assumptions, whether they may be considered pro- or anticompetitive and what welfare implications may arise. Moreover, the study sets out the lessons it has to offer thereby considering the pros and cons of a wide range of possible policy options ranging from direct price regulation, to intermediaries such as price comparison websites and encouraging consumers to switch.

Link to the study

Link to the study on CMA website


Papers & reports

Innovation as a standalone concern in horizontal mergers

Gregor LangusVilen LipatovCompetition Law and Policy Debate, November 2020

Article

The impact of EU cartel policy reforms on the timing of settlements in private follow-on damages disputes—an empirical assessment of cases from 2001 to 2015

Hans W. FriederiszickLinda GratzMichael RauberJournal of Antitrust Enforcement, jnaa045, November 2020
Papers & reports

Pre-empting the entry of near perfect substitutes

Vilen LipatovDamien Neven, Georges Siotis, Journal of Competition Law and Economics, September 2020

Papers & reports

Abuse of Economic Dependence

Alexis WalckiersRevue de Droit Commercial Belge - Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Handelsrecht - RDC - TBH, September 2022

Director Alexis Walckiers’ foreword on ABUSE OF ECONOMIC DEPENDENCE published in the Revue de Droit Commercial Belge – Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Handelsrecht – RDC – TBH

The Belgian Competition Authority has a new competence on abuse of economic dependence since August 2020. How will the new law be applied in practice? Is the way ahead likely to be bumpy?

Alexis raises a number of economic issues in his foreword for the Revue de Droit Commercial Belge – Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Handelsrecht and reflects on how this new law could be implemented in practice, highlighting that the BCA and the Courts will have to further clarify what companies can and cannot do.

To article


Retrospective evaluation of the regional State aid framework

Elżbieta GłowickaFinal Report prepared by DIW Berlin, E.CA Economics and Sheppard Mullin Richter & Hampton LLP, European Commission, June 2020